The stages of the development of stem cells therapy for the use in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Belarus are being considered. The approaches to patients' selection, rationale and types of stem cells therapy - autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, со- transplantation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, retransplantation of mesenchymal stem cells - are being discussed. The use of both conditioning regimens - BEAM and ATG + CF + MP - demonstrated good safety and tolerability. The technology of со- transplantation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells was more effective than autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for MS patients according to changes of neurologic status at 6 months after transplantation (p <0.05). The study of the long-term consequences of autologous stem cell
transplantation in patients with MS revealed that the use of this technology allows to achieve longterm stabilization of clinical and neurological parameters.
For the first time, significant factors for predicting the effectiveness of transplantation in patients with MS have been revealed — the ratio of dose of injected cells / patient weight, the level of previous disability on the EDSS scale and the duration of the stable state before transplantation affect the duration of the stable period after transplantation. The analysis of the optic cogerent tomography data suggests that transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells can promote remyelination of the neural tissue in patients with a relapsing-remitting form of MS.